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Tanzania Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area – The Biggest Crater in the World


Tanzania’s Ngorongoro crater Conservation Area, which encompasses substantial tracts of highland plains, savanna woods, and forests, is the biggest crater in the world.

It was established in 1959 as a diverse land use region where wildlife coexists with semi-nomadic Maasai pastoralists who practice traditional cattle grazing.

Due to the presence of internationally endangered species, the abundance of wildlife in the region, and the yearly migration of wildebeest, zebra, gazelles, and other animals onto the northern plains, the property is significant for the protection of biodiversity on a worldwide scale.

A significant body of evidence for the development of humans and the dynamics of the human-environment relationship has also been uncovered by the extensive archaeological investigation, including 3.6 million-year-old hominid footprints.

The Serengeti National Park’s northern grasslands, the eastern arm of the Great Rift Valley, and large stretches of highland plains, savanna, savanna woods, and forests are all included in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (809,440 hectares).

The region was formed in 1959 as a multi-use reserve, where wildlife and semi-nomadic Maasai pastoralists engaged in customary cattle grazing coexisted.

It comprises Olduvai Gorge, a 14 km long deep gorge, and the magnificent Ngorongoro Crater, the biggest crater in the world.

Given the abundance of wildlife that lives year-round in the Ngorongoro Crater and its surroundings, as well as the yearly migration of wildebeest, zebra, Thompson’s and Grant’s gazelles, and other ungulates into the northern plains, the property is significant for the protection of biodiversity.

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Tanzania Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area History

The British established the Serengeti National Park in 1951, which included what is now the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, protecting it from over-exploitation and poaching.

This area was first discovered in the late 1800s by the Austrian explorer Oscar Baumann, and it has since been exploited in various ways.

When the Ngorongoro Conservation Area was formally established in 1959, it fundamentally changed how this land was used.

Previously, it was regarded as a place where indigenous people’s rights were protected, albeit with some limitations in order to preserve ecosystem balance, as well as a place where nature, specifically flora and fauna, are protected.

The three major reasons for creating the Ngorongoro conservational area were/are to promote the preservation of natural resources, safeguard native interests, and, last but not least, promote ecotourism.

All of this is meant to be accomplished while taking into account the demands of everyone and without having an adverse impact, striking a balance that was challenging to achieve but necessary for the process to continue.

Tanzania Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area - The Biggest Crater in the World

UNESCO Biosphere Reserves list

The Ngorongoro Conservation Area was added to the UNESCO Biosphere Reserves list in 1980 after being named a World Heritage Site in 1979.

Due to its diverse land use strategy, the Ngorongoro Conservation Region is a unique protected area in Africa.

One of the reasons that UNESCO declared the region as a World Heritage Site in 1979 and an International Biosphere Reserve in 1981 is because of its abundant natural and cultural treasures.

In 2010, UNESCO included the Ngorongoro Conservation Area to its list of composite world heritage sites. Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Kilimanjaro (Africa’s highest mountain), and Serengeti National Park have made Tanzania the hub of Africa’s New Seven Natural Wonders since 2013.

Another UNESCO certification was given to the Ngorongoro Conservation Area in 2018; it is now a component of the northern Tanzanian Ngorongoro-Lengai UNESCO Global Geopark.

A Global Geopark is a single, undivided geographic region that is managed with a comprehensive vision of conservation, education, and sustainable development. It is home to internationally notable monuments and landscapes.

Attractions at the Ngorongoro Lengai Geopark total 117 today. The Olduvai Gorges, Leakey Camp, Soitoo Quartzite Hills, shifting sand, Bao Site, Nasera Rock, An’gatakiti Hills, Olkarien Gorge, Natural Stone Bridge, Ruppell’s Vulture, Accacia Rim Site, Gol Mountain, Lake Eyasi, Sacred Tree, Mount Oldonyo Lengai, Empakai Crater, Mount Oldonyo Lengai, Mount

Tours and attractions in Tanzania’s Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area

Each year, many tourists fly to Tanzania to witness the Ngorongoro Conservation Area.

One of the most amazing places in Africa is where you may view all five of the most well-known creatures there: lions, rhinoceroses, leopards, elephants, and buffaloes.

It is hardly surprising that the Ngorongoro conservation area is well-known for its Ngorongoro crater, which is the largest/major/key attraction there.

With the greatest number of wild species on the continent, the Ngorongoro Crater is one of Africa’s most famous attractions.

The Crater has achieved international recognition and is frequently referred to as the “eighth wonder of the world,” drawing an increasing number of tourists every year.

Although it won’t be possible for you to escape other cars in this area, you will be rewarded with amazing animal watching in an absolutely stunning environment.

The Ngorongoro Crater, the largest complete volcanic caldera in the world, is situated in Tanzania, not far from Serengeti National Park.

At any given moment, it is home to around 30,000 critters. The crater’s rim rises to a height of around 2,200 meters and has a distinct climate.

Variety of Interest

From this lofty vantage point, one can see the faint shapes of creatures moving around the crater floor far below. It is one of the few places in Tanzania where it could get chilly at night. Most days of the year, expanses of clouds hover above the jagged rim.

In addition to the Ngorongoro Crater, which is the main draw, other places of interest in the Ngorongoro conservation area include Lake Magadi, Olduvai Gorge, Laetoli, Lerai Fever Tree Forest, Shifting Sands, Gol Mountains, Nasera Rock, Salei Plains, and Ol Karien Gorge, as well as Hadzabe Tribe, Maasai bomas, Ol Doinyo Lengai,

The Ngorongoro conservation area offers a wide variety of activities to help you enjoy your safari in Tanzania and Africa in addition to being one of the top safari destinations in Tanzania and Africa for tourists.


The Ngorongoro conservation area/crater offers a variety of tourist activities, which includes

Game Drives and Seeing Wildlife

A game drive is the best method to view animals in the Ngorongoro Crater. In a typical tour van, game drives are performed in two shifts: the morning and the afternoon.

Since the animals don’t migrate, Ngorongoro offers year-round excellent wildlife viewing.

The Ngorongoro Conservation Area/Crater offers the best chances to see animals during the dry seasons, which include December through March and June through September.

The crater is less muddy during those months since there is no rain. Since the savanna grasses are shorter, wildlife is more visible.

During the dry season, animals congregate around the few remaining waterholes, making it possible for travelers to see the bulk of them in one place.

Unfortunately, the dry season is when most people visit the crater, so if you want to escape the crowds and have a more private safari, think about traveling then.

Everywhere in the nation is lush and beautiful during the rainy season. The time of year is also perfect for bird viewing.

Sightseeing Safari

Tanzania Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area - The Biggest Crater in the World

Tanzania ranks among the world’s most picturesque nations.

With its “Big Five” safaris, snow-capped mountain peaks, and stunning tropical islands, Tanzania is currently a very well-liked photographic vacation spot.

The Ngorongoro Crater should be included in a photography safari since it has it all, including animals, birds, lakes, and savanna vegetation.

Maasai tribesmen that reside close to the crater could be open to joining your photographic expedition.

Maasai bomas

The huts are made of sticks, mud, grasses and dung. It usually takes about 7 days to build one. They have a single door and no windows; only little holes to allow smoke from a fire to escape. In side there was a sitting area around a fire and sleeping areas.

Tanzania’s Ngorongoro Crater is well-known for its wildlife and for being the home of the Maasai tribe, one of the most intriguing tribes in Africa.

Despite the fact that they reside outside the crater, they are permitted to let their animals graze along the rim of the crater or bring them down to the crater for water during the dry months of the year.

While visiting the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, tourists can make arrangements to visit one of their houses or cultural centers to learn more about their customs and culture.

Also Read: The Maasai Tribe Facts: Blood Drinking, Lion Hunting

Enjoy a lunchtime picnic

Ever picture yourself enjoying a wonderful picnic with wildebeest nearby in the African desert?

In order to ensure that their visitors have a good time and that their safari expectations are met, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area always provides what their visitors need by allowing them to partake in some of the special activities, like picnicking.

You may share a picnic lunch with the local Maasai people in the crater to make it even more enjoyable and special. Picnic lunches can be offered by your tour guides or hotels.

You may share it with your spouse, family, friends, or other members of your loved ones, and it will undoubtedly be one of the most special experiences you have together.

Safari on foot

One of the rare activities that enable you to interact with the animals of the African bush without interfering with their daily lives.

Your walking safari will always include an armed ranger to protect you from any predators, keep you comfortable, and otherwise make it special and fun.

Once you reach a picturesque and solitary trailhead, your trek around the crater rim will take you through vibrant wildflowers and luxuriant trees specific to the Ngorongoro Highlands.

For montane forest species, like the olive sunbird, cinnamon-chested bee-eater, and European roller that we observed, the promenade is especially helpful.

As we did, you could also see bigger creatures like giraffes, zebras, and elephants (which is why you are accompanied by an experienced guide and armed ranger at all times).


One of Tanzania’s prime birding locations is the Ngorongoro crater. Both the Ngorongoro highlands and the crater provide excellent chances for birdwatching, with over 500 species identified.

The birdlife in the highland woodland is interesting and diversified. Among the species to be seen are the Livingstone Turaco and the White-Eyed Slaty Flycatcher.

A variety of specialized grassland birds call the crater home.

Just know that the Ngorongoro crater is one of the greatest locations for bird enthusiasts to satisfy their expectations and that you won’t be let down because the area has everything you need to enjoy your birding experience.

Safari with hot air balloons

The large crater and its environs may be explored in this expensive but exciting method.

Hot air ballooning is strongly advised during the migration when the wildebeest are foraging or calving outside of the crater and the nearby Serengeti.

Hot air ballooning has the advantage of enabling guests to admire and take in the crater’s spectacular splendour.

Safari hike

In addition to having wildlife and a crater, Ngorongoro also has some incredible and beautiful mountains that you may climb if you want to go trekking while on a safari in Tanzania.

The highlands are great for observing wildlife and interacting with the surrounding Maasai ranchers.

Numerous bird species and hundreds of baboons reside on the well-known Nasera Rock, which is situated at the foot of the Gol Mountains.

The Leakey family discovered the remains of people who lived there during the Stone Age.

The Gol Mountains will catch your attention if you’re interested in traveling to a remote African environment.

You may climb the active volcano Oldoinyo Lengai after touring the Gol Mountains.

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Explore the Olduvai Gorge

The Olduvai Gorge is known as “The Cradle of Mankind.” The first archaeological discoveries there were made by Richard Leakey and his family.

The Leakeys discovered the first hominid bones in Olduvai Gorge around the turn of the 20th century. They continued to make important discoveries, the bulk of which are older than 2 million years.

The fossils include those of more recent stone-age man as well as those of extinct animals that once inhabited the region.

Don’t forget to search Laetoli for hominid footprints. On a volcanic rock, these ancient footprints—which date back more than 3 million years—were found.

Excavated skeletons and other items are displayed in a small museum that is open to the public.

Check out Lake Magadi

If you’re fascinated by beautiful landscape, wildlife, and birds, the little lake Magadi won’t let you down.

Pelicans and flamingos, among other wading species, gather in large numbers to this oasis. One of Tanzania’s top birdwatching locations is Lake Magadi.

Each year, thousands of tourists travel to Tanzania to observe flamingos searching for green algae in this alkaline lake.

Entrance to the Empakai Crater

This is the younger sibling of the Ngorongoro Crater. The Empakai Crater was formed when a volcano fell, leaving a 6-kilometer-wide crater.

This undiscovered crater has a lot of promise. It’s covered in great part by an 85-meter-deep alkaline lake.

Numerous flamingos are drawn to the lake because of the presence of algae, which causes the color to shift during the day.

The crater’s margins are home to pink flamingos, blue monkeys, waterbucks, bushbucks, buffaloes, elephants, and hyenas. Mount Kilimanjaro and Ol Doniyo Lengai may both be visible from outside this crater.

Tanzania Ngorongoro Crater Safari

The Tanzanian Ngorongoro Crater is home to a plethora of sights that have drawn visitors from all over the world for years.

They typically travel here for vacations, with the majority doing safaris while on their honeymoons. As a result, a number of safari businesses have sprouted up to profit from the yearly travels made by foreigners.

All of these tour operators work hard to provide the best safari packages for international visitors. Therefore, the decision of which safari package to select is up to the tourist.

A safari package is essentially a description of how the trip will proceed from the beginning, when they pick you up from the airport or your lodging, until the conclusion when you are signaled off.

As a result, it is up to the visitor to decide which safari package to select.

A safari package is essentially a description of how the trip will proceed from the beginning, when they pick you up from the airport or your lodging, until the conclusion when you are signaled off.

It is advisable to choose a safari package that includes additional activities to keep you entertained while on your trip, and don’t forget to work with a reputable tour operator.

There are packages available for Ngorongoro, including the 4-Day Ngorongoro Safari and the 2-Day Ngorongoro Safari.

These safari packages exclusively include tours of the Ngorongoro Crater. As an example, the 4 Days Ngorongoro Serengeti Safari takes visitors to both the Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Parks.

There are various combination safari packages that allow visitors to see more than one national park.

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Safari Tour Agents

The businesses that assist you in creating a comprehensive safari package that includes all of the activities and fees of the whole vacation are known as tour operators.

Additionally, tour operators will assist you in planning your transportation for the duration of the safari and will be able to make hotel reservations on your behalf.

These tour companies facilitate your safaris, leaving you with the simple chore of paying for the experiences and things you want to purchase.

The tour companies pay for all expenses throughout the trip, including food, automobile gasoline, lodging, park admission, and any other necessary costs.

You are strongly urged to plan your safaris to Ngorongoro with a reputable tour operator and you should book in advance to prevent disappointments in light of the information provided about these tour companies.

Wildlife in Ngorongoro Crater

Tanzania Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area - The Biggest Crater in the World

115 distinct animal species may be found in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. The two primary locations for game watching, in addition to the crater, are the short-grass plains west of the Gol Mountains, northwest of the Ngorongoro Crater, and the area around Lake Ndutu, close to the Serengeti National Park boundary.

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The two locations transform into grazing and breeding grounds for over 2 million animals during the rainy season in order to support the yearly wildebeest migration through the Serengeti environment.

Over one million wildebeests, thousands of zebras, and gazelles travel south from December to May (depending on precipitation) to give birth in the short-grass plains near Ndutu, which run through the Conservation Area and Serengeti National Park.

Elephants, elands, hartebeests, and endangered rhinos are among the creatures that call the crater home. There are wildebeests and zebras that live inside the crater but don’t migrate every year.

The crater’s permanent freshwater ponds and marshes are home to hippos. Non-migratory herbivorous animals found in the Conservation Area include buffalos, waterbucks, warthogs, kudus, and other antelope species. Around Lake Ndutu, where acacia trees are common, giraffes can be observed.

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In the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, carnivores including lions, cheetahs, hyenas, leopards, jackals, serval cats, and rare wild hunting dogs may be found.

Around 550 different bird species may be found in the conservation area, some of which are migratory and some of which are permanent.

On the crater floor, Lake Magadi is a salt lake that is frequently visited by thousands of lesser flamingos and other water birds.

Additionally, you can spot these birds around Lake Ndutu and in the Empakai Crater Lake. Birds of many kinds, including turaco and hornbill species, abound in the woodlands of Ngorongoro. Raptors like the goshawk and harrier reside on the plains of the Conservation Area.

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Tanzania Ngorongoro Crater Location

180 kilometers (110 miles) west of Arusha in the Crater Highlands, in northern Tanzania, the Ngorongoro Conservation Region is a protected area and a World Heritage Site.

It is a part of the Serengeti ecosystem, where Maasai tribes frequently live amidst diverse species. It’s an excellent spot to observe wildebeest as they pass through the region yearly during their migration.

The Ngorongoro Conservation Area is also adjacent to other well-known national parks in Tanzania, including Tarangire National Park, which is home to Tanzania’s biggest herd of elephants, and Lake Manyara National Park, which is home to lions that can scale trees.

The Ngorongoro Crater is situated on the Eastern Great Rift Valley arm in northern Tanzania. The settlement of Oloirobi district, where the park is located and is maintained by the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority, has continued to grow as a result of having a national park nearby.

Ngorongoro park fees are always used to improve the neighboring communities, especially the villages of Oloirobi, which have experienced improvements to their infrastructure and general well-being, including new schools, hospitals, and water-electricity systems.

What makes Ngorongoro Conservation Area Interesting

With more than 25,000 animals and hundreds of bird species coexisting with the semi-nomadic Maasai people in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, which is a component of the Serengeti ecosystem, It should come as no surprise that it is a popular safari site in Tanzania.

The Ngorongoro Crater is renowned for being the only whole caldera in the whole globe. In its basin, where the volcanic soil has fertilized the earth and attracted a variety of species, from lions and leopards to elephants and hippos, a wildlife sanctuary flourishes.

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Travelers may take a safari over the crater and into the west of the crater’s Ndutu lake region, which is renowned for its plethora of wildlife and the annual Great Migration that passes through it.

In addition to the game drive to the Ngorongoro crater, Maasai guides may be hired to accompany visitors on foot to the two smaller craters of Empakai and Olmoti.

In the Olduvai Gorge, where a 1.75 million-year-old human cranium and some fossilized footprints were discovered, visitors may trace the movements of early humans.

From safaris in the Ngorongoro Crater to seeing the Great Migration from Ndutu Lake to hiking through the breathtaking Olduvai Gorge, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area provides a variety of activities.

Ngorongoro Crater Weather

Although Ngorongoro and the Crater Highlands are fewer than 200 kilometers south of the equator, the great elevation (often over 2,000 meters) results in an unusually frigid environment, with daytime highs seldom reaching 25 degrees and nighttime lows regularly dipping below 10 degrees.

The crater floor and rim are at different altitudes, which results in a significant buildup of mist in the mornings. The weather is often bright during the day, but overcast days are not unusual.

The normal minimum and maximum temperatures in Ngorongoro show little seasonal variation because of its tropical location, albeit the months of October to March are a little bit warmer than the months of May to August.

Due to its relationship with the humid trade winds that blow inland from the Indian Ocean from November to May, rainfall is significantly more cyclical.

These months see more than 80% of the 1,000 mm of yearly precipitation. March and April are the wettest/rainiest months, and June through September are the driest.

Despite this, you may travel to Ngorongoro at any time of year, and there are a lot more compelling factors to take into account when making travel plans than the weather.

Travelers seeking a less crowded experience should attempt to visit around April and May, which are the slowest months for tourism, not just in Ngorongoro but also across the northern Tanzania safari circuit, since the crater may get rather overcrowded with safari vehicles during peak seasons.

Ngorongoro Crater Accomodation

There are several different types of housing available in the Ngorongoro Conservation area, each with its own special amenities and characteristics.

There are a few lodges on the crater’s rim that provide breathtaking views of the crater, although the selection is few and the rates are often more.

The luxury of the lodges is, however, more than worth the price if you can afford it.

The cost of lodging tends to decrease as you move further away from the crater’s rim if you’re prepared to give up views of it.

You may pick from a selection of hotels close to the Ngorongoro Crater or further out in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area for the beginning of your safari.

In addition to the resorts, the Ngorongoro conservation area has a number of stunning campsites that you may stay at while on your Ngorongoro safari excursion.

These campsites range from private to public. The Ngorongoro Conservation Area offers a variety of lodging options, including Ngorongoro Wildlife Lodge, Ngorongoro Crater Lodge, Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge, among many others, are a few of the lodging options included in the package to Tanzania’s Ngorongoro crater.

These hotels are divided into three categories: low-cost hotels, upscale hotels, and luxury hotels. Therefore, it is entirely up to the traveler to be able to pay for the amenities they choose.

Lodge at Ngorongoro Crater

Unquestionably one of the greatest hotels in the world and most likely the best lodging option in the Ngorongoro conservation region.

People travel to Tanzania simply to stay in places like this one, which is positioned on the rim of the Ngorongoro Crater and offers breathtaking views.

It is distinct from other properties on a northern path and is Andbeyond’s flagship property. While we believe it’s a bit excessive, And beyond characterizes it as “Masaai meets Versailles.” If you can afford it, you really must stay here!

Camp in the Highlands

In order to make the most of the stunningly expansive vistas, eight dome tents were built and were placed gently on the Olmoti volcano’s slopes.

They took their cues from the design of traditional Maasai houses (called bomas).

The location of the dome apartments gives them an excellent starting point for visiting the wild and pristine regions of the Ngorongoro highlands, in addition to offering a singular and exciting vacation experience.

The camp has eight “dome apartments,” which are divided by vegetation. With a large, curving Perspex “window” staring out over breathtaking views, the domes are primarily made of canvas.

They each feature a private bathroom with an en suite that is modernly decorated, with hot water, showers, and flushing toilets.

King-sized beds and wood-burning stoves that may be used on chilly nights add to the comfort and warmth.

Camp Entamo

The camp is situated on the remote northwestern rim of the Ngorongoro Crater, off the beaten route yet right on the brink, with breathtaking views of the Serengeti on one side and down into the Crater at daybreak on the other (perfect for sundowners).

The seclusion and vistas are unmatched on this untamed side of the Crater.

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Ngorongoro Kirurumu

On the rim of the Ngorongoro Crater, Kirurumu Ngorongoro is a stunning tented camp with breath-taking vistas.

Small and reminiscent of a safari, it is a far cry from the massive, faceless chains that are also present on the rim.

Camp Lemala Ngorongoro

Lemala is conveniently located, has some wildlife nearby, but don’t be fooled; the views aren’t into the crater itself because the camp is on the other side of the rim, looking out into the conservation area rather than into the crater itself.

Around the Ngorongoro rim, it’s a superb product and a welcome breath of fresh air with its lovely unique tents and general rustic comfort.

Lodge Ngorongoro Serena

The Ngorongoro Serena Lodge is a great alternative because there aren’t many lodging alternatives on the crater rim; also, it offers inexpensive lodging with simple access to the crater.

It lacks the charm that one would anticipate from a lodge in a well-known location because it is a massive hotel.

This is an excellent option for the rim, but Plantation Lodge in the highlands is a fantastic alternative if you’re looking for something with a bit more character and a little less money.

If you wish to stay at one of the most popular hotels in Africa, another choice is the Ngorongoro Crater Lodge.

Sopa Ngorongoro

For those who couldn’t afford to stay at the Crater Lodge, we would definitely select the Ngorongoro Sopa over staying on the rim or in the Ngorongoro Highlands.

Although not very opulent and situated on the eastern edge of the rim, The Sopa does profit from having its own access road.

Entry from the western side (Serena/Crater Lodge side) has been more challenging over time as the number of lodges encircling the crater has increased.

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How to Travel or Get to Ngorongoro Crater

The best way to get to Ngorongoro is to fly into Kilimanjaro International Airport (JRO), which is about 46 km from Arusha town, the main entry point to Ngorongoro.

Arusha Airport or Kilimanjaro International Airport may both be reached by flying into Dar es Salaam’s Julius Nyerere International Airport (DAR).

The Loduare Gate, the main entrance and exit gate for the park at Karatu, is where the road from Arusha to the Ngorongoro Conservation Area enters the park.

West of Serengeti National Park, near Naabi Hill Gate, is another well-liked entrance to Ngorongoro. There is an airfield on the crater rim close to the Ngorongoro Conservation Area headquarters, so chartering an aircraft to the area is also a possibility.

Best Time to Visit Ngorongoro Crater

Expect high visitor numbers during the peak dry months of late June to September and the December to February calving season that follows the November rains.

At these times, wildlife watching is more enjoyable and other tourism-related activities are well-executed.

As there are much fewer people and the crater is lush and green in contrast to the arid dry-season topography, the rainy season, which lasts from April to May, is often regarded as the ideal time to visit the Ngorongoro Crater if you wish to avoid crowds and congestions.


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