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Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali Signs World’s Only Confederation Treaty Called the Alliance of Sahel States


In a monumental shift on the African continent, the military leaders of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger have come together to establish the Alliance of Sahel States (AES). This new confederation signifies a bold step towards deeper integration and collaboration between these nations.

Historical Context of the Alliance

The creation of the AES is not just a political maneuver; it is a response to a series of complex historical, social, and geopolitical dynamics. Each of these countries has experienced significant upheavals in recent years, with military coups reshaping their political landscapes.

Breaking Away from ECOWAS

The decision to form the AES comes on the heels of their collective withdrawal from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

The leaders of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger accused ECOWAS of being manipulated by France, their former colonial ruler, which led to their decision to sever ties.

This break represents a profound shift in West African geopolitics, as the three nations seek to redefine their regional alliances and priorities.

The Treaty of Niamey

On a historic Saturday, during their first summit in Niamey, the capitals of the three nations signed a treaty establishing the Confederation of Sahel States.

This treaty marks the formal beginning of their new alliance, aiming to integrate their economies, defense strategies, and social policies.

The AES aims to foster greater cooperation in various strategic sectors, including agriculture, water, energy, and transport.

By pooling resources and coordinating efforts, the confederation hopes to tackle the challenges that have long plagued the Sahel region.

One of the primary motivations for the formation of the AES is to enhance military cooperation. The member states have already created a joint military force to combat jihadist groups that frequently target their territories. This unified military approach is expected to improve security and stability in the region.

Economic integration is another cornerstone of the AES. By aligning their economic policies and strategies, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger aim to boost trade, attract investment, and foster sustainable development. This collaboration is seen as a crucial step towards overcoming the economic challenges that have hindered progress in the Sahel region.

Cultural and Linguistic Unity

The leaders of the AES have also emphasized the importance of promoting indigenous languages and cultures. This move aims to strengthen the cultural ties between the member states and foster a sense of unity and identity among their populations.

Diplomatic Relations and Global Positioning

In their quest for greater autonomy and independence, the AES countries have also sought to redefine their diplomatic relations.

By breaking military and defense links with France and seeking closer cooperation with Russia, they are signaling a shift towards a more diversified foreign policy.

The Role of Russia

The pivot towards Russia is a significant aspect of the AES’s strategy. This new alliance with Russia is expected to provide military support, economic investment, and diplomatic backing, helping the AES countries to navigate the complex geopolitical landscape of the Sahel region.

Challenges and Opportunities

The formation of the AES is not without its challenges. Integrating the economies, defense strategies, and social policies of three distinct countries is a monumental task. However, the leaders of the AES are optimistic about the opportunities that this new confederation presents.

The establishment of the AES marks a new chapter in the history of the Sahel region. By fostering greater integration and cooperation, the AES countries hope to create a more stable, prosperous, and secure future for their populations.


The Alliance of Sahel States represents a bold and ambitious vision for the future of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger. Through greater integration and cooperation, these countries aim to overcome the challenges that have long plagued the Sahel region and create a brighter future for their people.


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