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What Caused Rwanda Genocide: The Manhunt for the most wanted Rwandan Genocide Criminal


What Caused Rwanda Genocide: After over 20 years, the quest for the last significant Rwandan outlaw arraigned by an atrocities court for his job in the 1994 massacre has reached a conclusion. An as of late unearthed grave in Zimbabwe affirms that Protais Mpiranya died in 2006.

He is covered under a stone section with a bogus name, and his grave was recognized by UN investigators because of a lead they found on a seized PC — the hand-drawn plan for Mpiranya’s gravestone, The Guardian reports.

Examiners had been chasing him down for over twenty years following his prosecution by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in 2000, however, he had passed on from tuberculosis about 16 years ago at the age of 50. “Following a difficult and concentrated examination, the OTP (office of the investigator) has established that Mpiranya died on October 5, 2006, in Harare, Zimbabwe,” the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals reported in The Hague.

It added that Mpiranya was the “remainder of the significant escapees prosecuted by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and asserted to have been a senior head of what caused the Rwanda Genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda”. Accused of war wrongdoings, destruction and violations against humankind, Mpiranya was the second on the wanted list of the people what caused the Rwanda Genocide until the capture of supposed genocide financier Felicien Kabuga close to Paris a long time back. There are presently just five remarkable escapees needed by the UN court situated in the Hague and Arusha.

“Representing the remainder of the major… escapees, Protais Mpiranya, is a significant stage forward in our continued efforts to achieve justice for the victims of the 1994 massacre against the Tutsi,” the council’s central investigator Serge Brammertz said.

At the time of the genocide, authorities said Mpiranya was head of the presidential guard, which was supposed to be behind targeted assassinations during the 100-day slaughter of Tutsis and moderate Hutus. Mpiranya ordered the murder of then prime minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana and the 10 Belgian soldiers safeguarding her as well as leading government officials and their families in the early hours of the massacre on April 7, 1994.

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What Caused Rwanda Genocide, Top Goverment Officials Killed

On April 6, the night prior to, a plane conveying Rwanda’s leader Juvenal Habyarimana was shot down as it advanced toward Kigali International Airport, killing everybody on board. Habyarimana had recently gotten back from a local gathering in Tanzania, where he had tossed his weight behind the conditions of the 1993 Arusha Accords that should end a 3 year battle between the Hutu government in Kigali, and a Tutsi rebellion, as per AFP.

After Habyarimana’s assassination, heads of the Rwandan Armed Forces, top police authorities, the UN military and a few civilian leaders held an emergency meeting. Uwilingiyimana, a moderate Hutu and Rwanda’s first female prime minister, was made to lead the nation yet Rwanda’s radical Hutu leaders disapproved of it.

On the morning of April 7, Mpiranya and about two military authorities “ordered their subordinates… to look for the Prime Minister, Agathe Uwilingiyimana, to kill her”, as per the examiner’s prosecution for the previous International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). Other driving political figures who upheld the Arusha Accords were additionally killed. The presidential guard commanded by Mpiranya was behind the attacks, according to prosecutors. The killings aimed “to make a political vacuum and crash the execution of the Arusha Accords”, leading to what caused the Rwanda Genocide.

Who was Mpiranya?

He comes from the former province of Gisenyi, in northern Rwanda, where Habyarimana and some Hutu military pioneers likewise came from. Mpiranya moved on from military school in Kigali in 1983 and was alloted to the public police force. As the military battled the agitators of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), which was driven by Paul Kagame now president, Mpiranya was moved to the presidential guard battalion in 1991 and was elevated to commander two years after.

After the genocide in 1994, Mpiranya escaped to Cameroon and afterward moved to the Democratic Republic of Congo, where many blamed for the genocide had fled and formed a rebel group, the FDLR. Mpiranya turned into a member of the rebel group in 1998 and commanded a brigade that fought alongside by Zimbabwe’s military during the Second Congo War. Becoming known as “Commandant Alain”, senior Zimbabwean officials appreciated and regarded him. So when Mpiranya was first prosecuted in September 2002, his partners in Zimbabwe slipped him into the country on a Zimbabwean military plane.

His wife and kids went along with him but later left for Britain. “For quite a long time, Mpiranya was able to avoid arrest and find some refuge in Zimbabwe, where he resided in a sensibly princely area of Harare,” investigators said. Utilizing a fake identity, he began a little vehicle business however it failed. “The last long stretches of his life were set apart by uneasiness andfear that his location would be found and that he would be tried for his crimes,” as prosecutors.

Whenever he became sick with tuberculosis in 2006, he was utilizing the name Ndume Sambao. He passed on October 5, 2006, in Harare’s West End Hospital and was covered in Granville graveyard on the southern edge of Harare under his alias — Ndume Sambao. His burial was attended simply by family and partners, investigators said, adding that “since October 2006, Mpiranya’s family and partners have taken incredible measures to disguise his demise and place of burial.”

“They have over and over provided false statements to investigators, and instructed the people who knew about Mpiranya’s presence and demise in Harare to lie whenever addressed. His headstone was deliberately intended to defeat its revelation.”

Investigators later said they seized a computer and other material in a raid in an European country (the nation was not named). They found photographs of a memorial service and a hand-drawn image of a headstone that drove them to where Mpiranya is buried.


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