African HistoryReligion & Spirituality

Ancient Egytian Gods and Goddess

Egypt attained immortality in this way: “If History Were Taught in the Form of Stories, It Would Never Be Forgotten.”

According to Newton’s third law, every action has a reaction. The ancient Egyptians believed that the primary action had to originate from a source, and as a result, they believed in the existence of divine creations that have the power to create, reshape, and control everything around them, including themselves.

The ancient Egyptians observed the sky, the Nile River floods, the dawn and sunset, and other natural phenomena in search of an explanation, which they found in the form of a sizable pantheon of gods.

They came to recognize these celestial beings as Ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses, who were in charge of all the benefits and pleasures enjoyed by each and every Egyptian soul.

Great stories, temples, and valleys were constructed in their honor.

Here is a list of famous 50 ancient Egyptian gods & goddesses:

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The Origins of the Gods and Goddesses in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptians believed that their gods and goddesses were celestial beings that could perform miracles and great acts of wonder, as well as unlock the mysteries of the Milky Way.

As a result, they chose to honor them by giving them physical manifestations that can be found throughout Egypt in Cairo, Alexandria, Luxor, and Aswan.

Their everyday lives were centered on the worship of the ancient Egyptian deities, which consumed their whole existence.

Ancient Egypt had around 2000 deities, each of whom symbolized and ruled over a different component of the environment and played a significant and profound role in the pursuit of immortality by all people.

One essential element of their spiritual consciousness was magic, or what they termed “Heka,” a supernatural power that unites both mortal and divine existence.

The majority of these Egyptian mythology gods’ stories were found on the walls of their temples in Luxor or were passed down orally from one generation to another.

Egypt has experienced a tremendous amount of stories and myths that have profoundly influenced their lives.

The gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt gave their people everything they required.

Ancient Egyptian deities had names, special abilities, distinguishing attributes and transformations, distinctive personalities, traits, and characteristics, as well as clothes and personal holy artifacts, all of which had an influence on the vast majority of Egyptian society.

The gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt were known to manifest physically as humans and other animals, including phoenixes, bulls, cats, crocodiles, lionesses, falcons, and more.

Egypt tours will be the best way to fully discover and explore the incredible monuments and attractions that preserve the existence and memory of the ancient Egyptian deities.

The ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses are a heavenly physical and spiritual reflection of the ancient Egyptian imagination and power of creativity.

 

1. Amun (Amun-Ra) “The Creator God”

lAmun is the ultimate ruler of all gods and mankind in both the worlds of the living and the dead. He is also the originator of existence.

He was the protector of Thebes, and even after the god Ra ascended to power during the reign of the old kingdom of Egypt (2686–2181 BCE), Amun’s position was unaffected.

In fact, he even fused with Ra to become the supreme god Amun-Ra, also known as “The Hidden One,” who was worshiped alongside his wife, the goddess Mut, and son Khonsu, the moon god, as the Theban triad, between the 16 The priestess wife of Amun held a position of great authority that may be compared to that of a pharaoh.

As evidenced by his time spent in the Karnak, he is sometimes portrayed as a human wearing a double-plumed crown and other times as a ram or a geese.

2. Ra (Atum) “God of Sun”

The big sun deity is called RA “Atum”. He represents both this powerful star and the all of Egypt, including the Giza Pyramids.

One of the original heavenly deities, Ra was responsible for bringing order and the creation of the cosmos over chaos.

Ra, who presided over both the land of the living and the realm of the dead, was the almighty creator. He is the ancestor of the Tefnut (“Goddess of Moisture and Rain”) and Shu (“The Air God”) deities.

He was the only heavenly divine entity who could have stood atop the mound of primordial chaos and brought about the creation of the cosmos, life, and order.

He had a childlike appearance in the morning, an adult appearance at midday, and an elderly appearance in the evening.

He was wearing a crown with a sun disk on which a holy asp was resting. As evidenced by his stay in the Karnak, he was the most potent deity who would defend other deities and souls from the ancient snake “Apophis.”

3. Osiris “God of Justice”

The great-grandson of Amun and one of the first five gods, Osiris is in charge of the Underworld. He is also one of the early gods of creation.

Because of the Osiris Myth, in which he is killed by his evil brother Set, the “God of the Desert,” revived by his sister-wife Isis, the “Goddess of Motherhood and Healing,” and Horus the Elder, and then descended to the underworld to become a lord and judge of the dead, he gained fame, popularity, and influence.

He serves as the chief arbiter in the hall of Truth in the afterlife, where he measures the souls of the deceased against a white feather belonging to the goddess Maat, the “Goddess of Truth and Justice.”

He is shown as a mummy with two ostrich plumes, green or black skin, and a beard. He also typically holds a crook and flail symbolizing royalty. Many ancient Egyptians in Abydos made the decision to be buried close to his worship.

4. Isis “Goddess of Motherhood”

Isis is also known as Mut-Netier, “Mother of the Gods,” and West- Kekau, “The Great Magic,” and she has evolved into a super divinity with ties to almost every facet of human life, including time, life after death, and death itself.

She was the mother of Hours, the falcon sky deity, and the wife of Osiris, the king of the underworld. She went by the name Eset, which translates as “Goddess of the Throne.”

Due to the Osiris tale and her genuine concern for other gods and mortals, who she appeared to after death to lead to paradise, she rose to become the most powerful and well-known goddess in Egyptian mythology.

She was shown as having a tail, a throne on her head, and occasionally nursing Horus. She had a very large and powerful cult that was adored all across the world, from Asia to Britain to Europe’s Greece and Rome.

5. Hathor “Goddess of Drunkenness”

One of the most well-known and significant ancient Egyptian gods is Hathor, also known as the lady of inebriation and the lady of the sycamore.

Intoxication, happiness, music, dancing, celebration, women, childbirth, and love were all associated with her.

She was viewed as a heavenly mother goddess who was associated with the Nile River’s holy role as the Milky Way’s sacred reflection.

She is linked to thankfulness and being thanks. She was once known as Sekhment, a goddess of destruction and vengeance who would exact retribution on mankind because of its misdeeds by acting as Ra’s representative.

She accepted Ra’s gift of a vat of red-colored beer from Dendera, drank it, slept off, and awoke as Hathor. She is Ra’s daughter, and she protects heaven on Ra’s sun barge while also assisting in the afterlife’s transportation of souls to paradise.

She earned the moniker “The Lady of the Sycamore” because she inhabits sycamore trees. She is shown as a cow or as a lady with a cow’s head.

6. Ma’at “Goddess of Balance”

Ma’at is the goddess of harmony, justice, and truth, in that order. She is regarded as one of the most significant goddesses as the idea of harmony and balance.

She was a focal point of ancient Egyptian culture and every area of life and an essential part of all of time and space.

She established the seasons and placed the stars in the sky. She participated in the afterlife as well, changing into a truth feather that weighed against people’s hearts to help them decide whether to reach heaven (The Fields of Reeds) or vanish into nothingness (Ammut).

Every aspect or activity carried out by the ancient Egyptian civilisation has been guided by the principles of Maa’t, which came to be known as “That Which Is Straight” (Maat). She was portrayed as a woman sitting on her heels, with an ostrich plume.

Also Read: The 42 Laws of Maat in Kemet’ (The Original 10 Commandments of the Bible)

The 42 Laws of Maat in Kemet’ (The Original 10 Commandments of the Bible)

7. Horus “God of Sky”

the fabled sky god, the offspring of Osiris, king of the underworld, and Isis, goddess of childbirth and healing Horus is an avian god who has a close relationship with the sun, the sky, and the heavenly force.

He is highly recognized and well-known because to his connection to the Egyptian monarchs of the First Dynasty (3150–2890 BCE), who all thought they were the incarnations of Horus in life and of his father Osiris in death as a result of the Osiris Myth, in which he battles and vanquishes his wicked uncle. ready to exact revenge on his father and bring stability and peace to Egypt.

His emblems are the hawk and the fabled Wadjet eye, the Eye of Horus, which he gave his life to save his father. Many people mistake him for Hours the ELDER, one of the first creation gods.

He assumes the form of a huge hawk or falcon and typically appears as a man with a hawk’s head.

The deceased were kept in the four canopic jars that were deposited in the tomb by the Four Sons of Horus, Hapy, Imset, Duamutef, and Qebehsenuef, each of whom had his own cardinal point to guard the internal organs that were kept inside the jar.

8. Anubis “God of Death”

Anubis, the god of the dead, mummification, tombs, the afterlife, embalming, graves, the Underworld, and judgment, is one of the most well-known ancient Egyptian deities.

He is regarded as one of the most well-known, mentioned, and represented gods in Egyptian mythology. He is the child of Nephthys and Osiris.

He is referred to by a variety of names and played a variety of roles, including “First of the Westerners,” “He Who is Upon his Sacred Mountain,” “Lord of the Sacred Land,” “The Dog Who Swallows Millions,” “Ruler of the Nine Bow,” “He Who is in the Place of Embalming,” “Master of Secrets,” and “Foremost of the Divine Booth.”

He was also an embalmer, a guardian of tombs, He is recognized as the first deity of the dead, who made decisions about whether or not a soul would be permitted to enter the afterlife and led the departed to the hall of Truth in the underworld to participate in the ritual of weighing the heart to the feather of Ma’at in the afterlife to determine their fate. He is seen on tombs and temples all around Egypt as a figure with a jackal’s head wielding a staff.

9. Set “God of Deception”

Set, who was also known as the Destroyer and the Instigator of Confusion, was the God of chaos, storms, plague, and war.

For slaying his brother Osiris, who was the monarch of Egypt and later the ruler of the underworld, and ushering in a new era of darkness, he is viewed as a symbol of evil.

Initially, Set was a hero-god who escaped and even killed the snake Apep (Apophis) from the sun god Ra’s sun ship barge.

He was viewed as a necessary evil and a counterbalance to both Osiris and Horus’ virtue, fertility, and life. As he killed his own brother Osiris to steal the golden kingdom of Egypt, he is regarded as the first killer ever.

He is a desert deity who, in an effort to seize power, sent winds from hell to the Nile River. He fought his nephew Hours, the sky god, for eight years at the location that is now known as the Edfu Temple.

In the end, Horus triumphed and was crowned king of Egypt. He is portrayed as a red animal like a fox with cloven hooves and a forked tail that disperses disasters such as hurricanes, tidal waves, volcanoes, and any other type of calamity.

10. Nephthys “Goddess of Funerals”

The twin of Isis, the wife of Set, and the mother of Anubis from Osiris, Nephthys is a goddess of the afterlife and one of the five original gods of Nut and Geb.

In contrast to her sister Isis, the goddess of healing and childbirth, she is viewed as an evil deity. She is shown as a lady wearing a house on her head, and her name means “Mistress of the Temple Enclosure” or “Mistress of the House.”

She is regarded as a friend of the dead because she looks after the souls of the deceased in the afterlife.

She also served as a mentor to professional mourners at funerals, encouraging open expression of grief via songs called “Kites of Nephthys.”

She was viewed as an evil deity in contrast to her sister Isis’s bright divinity. She was a crucial character in the Osiris Myth because she adored Osiris and used her transformation into Isis to entice him, which is how Anubis was created.

She told Set where Osiris’s corpse was, but subsequently assisted Isis in bringing his spirit back from the dead.

11. Nut “Goddess of Earth”

The mother of Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys, Nut was the primeval sky goddess and the wife of Geb, the Earth-god.

She was made by Shu, and Tefnut, Atum’s child, made the world. When Atum and Tefnut were reunited, he wept joyous tears that gave rise to humanity.

In spite of Amun’s objections, who claimed that Nut could not give birth on any day of the year, Shu and Tefnut gave birth to Geb (Earth) and Nut (Sky), who in turn fell in love and had the four original gods.

Thoth, the god of wisdom, was able to win five days through a wager with the moon god, giving Shu and Tefnut five days to give birth to five children.

When her body was spread over the planet, each limb stood in for a cardinal direction. She was frequently portrayed as giving birth to the sun at night and eating it up in the evening.

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12. Shu “God of Air”

Shu is a prehistoric air deity whose name translates to “Emptiness.” He was one of the first two gods that Atum and his sister-wife Tefnut ever created.

Shu was the goddess of wetness, while his wives were the gods of air, sunshine, the upper atmosphere above the ground, and dry air.

He was shown as a man sporting a plume-shaped hat, which is also his name’s hieroglyph. His responsibility was to divide the sky from the ground.

He shed joyful tears that resulted in the birth of humanity when he and Tefnut finally returned to Ra. Geb and Nut, who were born of Shu and Tefnut, gave birth to the other ancient Egyptian gods.

He was also related to brightness and light, and the mist and clouds were referred to as “Lakes of Shu” and “Bones of Shu,” respectively.

13. Tefnut “Goddess of Moisture”

Tefnut was the sister-wife of Shu and the corrosive air and moisture goddess Atum (Ra). She was also often shown as a lioness or as a lady with a lions’ head.

She was Geb’s and Nut’s mother. The first gods Atum created were her and her spouse. She is the earth’s atmosphere, the atmosphere of the lower world.

14. Bastet “Goddess of Beauty”

Bastet is a lovely and alluring goddess of cats, a protector against bad luck and disaster, a promoter of fertility, and the daughter of Ra.

She was beloved by everybody, and her talismans and amulets were bestowed upon all of her subjects and followers.

She was revered to the extent that the Persians in 525 BCE used the Egyptians’ adoration of Bastet against them by painting images of her on their shields and driving cats in front of their armies, causing the Egyptians to lose the battle of Pelusium rather than offending their gods.

She was worshipped as early as the Second Dynasty (2890 BCE), and she was so highly regarded.

Sekhmet represented the strong warrior and protector part of the goddess, while Bastet was shown as a cat, which symbolized a softer, more forgiving element. Bastet and Sekhmet were understood to be two facets of the same deity.

She was shown as either a lady with a cat’s head or as a cat. She was the inspiration for the Catwoman of DC Comics.

15. Thoth “God of Intellect”

The deity of knowledge, truth, and wisdom known as Thoth was also known as the originator of writing and the gods’ keeper of records.

From the Predynastic Period (6000-3150 BCE) until the Ptolemaic Dynasty, he was one of the most significant and well-known gods in the Egyptian pantheon (323-30 BCE).

He created writing, kept the records of the gods, and was also known by many names, including “Lord of Time” and “Reckoner of Years” because he was able to use his profound understanding of the magical properties of words to keep track of time and extend the rule of pharaohs and other rulers, maintaining his rule over the entire planet.

He is adored by humanity for giving them the wonderful gifts of written language. In addition, he granted Nut five days of moonlight so she could give birth to the initial five gods without violating Amun. He is also the patron of libraries and scribes.

He is renowned for having benefitted humanity by bestowing upon them the gift of the written word. He stands in the Hall of Truth during the Weighing of the heart to maintain records beside Osiris.

Seshat, his wife or daughter, was his female counterpart and the goddess of libraries and books. She is shown as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon clutching a writing instrument.

16. Ptah “God of Memphis”

Since the first dynastic period (3150–2613 BC), the glorious god Ptah has been the lord of truth, the architect of the world, and the ruler of Memphis.

However, many people think that Ptah actually dates back to the Predynastic Period (6000–3150 BCE), when he first appeared as “Ptah-Nun” or “Ptah-Naunet.”

Ptah is the primary patron deity of all types of artists as well as artisans, sculptors, and builders.

One of the first deities in Egyptian mythology is Ptah, who is sometimes mistaken for the sun god Ra as the universe’s creator because several tales depict him standing on the ben-ben mound at the moment the world was created, where he had previously served as an early fertility deity.

The Was scepter, along with the Ankh and the Djed, unite to produce the scepter of authority, which is shown as a mummified man wearing a skull cap.

The Greek term Aigyptos, which is equivalent to the word Hat-Ka-Ptah, which means “Temple of the Soul of Ptah” and is located in Memphis city, gave rise to the name Egypt.

Ptah was referred to as Ptah-Nun, Ptah-Naunet, Ptah-hotep, and Ptah-Sokar-Osiris among other names.

Also Read: How The Story, Birth of Jesus And The Bible Was Copied From Ancient Egypt Spirituality

How The Story, Birth of Jesus And The Bible Was Copied From Ancient Egypt Spirituality

17. Khonsu “God of Lunar”

As the god of the moon and retribution, Khonsu (also spelled Kons, Khensu, or Chons) also goes by the names Traveler, Pathfinder, Embracer, and Defender.

He is shown as a mummy with uraeus on his head, clutching a crook and a flail. He was crucial in the process of making new life in the likeness of living things.

Khonsu is portrayed as the “Greatest God of the Great Gods” and as the big serpent that fertilizes the Cosmic Egg in the creation tale that spans the walls of his temple at Karnak.

Together with his mother Mut and father Amun, he made up the Theban triad.

Particularly during the New Kingdom period (1570–1050 BC), he was highly respected and worshipped as one of the greatest gods due to his supernatural powers, such as the ability to instantly heal the ill. He also provided the inspiration for the Marvel character “Moon Knight.”

18. Khnum “God of Potters”

Khnum, who is regarded as the principal source of the Nile, is the original patron deity of potters and every single artist and artisan who works in ceramics and pottery.

He came from Nubia in Upper Egypt, where he rose to renown and greatness. He was also referred to as the deity protector of the Nile’s source.

He is one of the earliest gods in history and Egyptian mythology. The titles “Divine Potter” and “Lord of Created Things from Himself” were bestowed upon him.

He served as the Island Elephantine’s protector god. He was in charge of making people out of clay from the Nile River, holding the clay sculptures up to Ra “The Sun God” to give them life, and then putting their souls inside the womb so they might breathe and live on earth.

He is shown as the fertility and virility-representing god with a ram’s head. At the temple of Esna, Khnum was referred to as the “Father of the Fathers” and the goddess Neith as the “Mother of the Mothers.”

19. Hapi “God of Fertility”

Hapi is the most important fertility deity, and Nile silt is connected to flooding, which was the major source of the Nile that the farmers of ancient Egypt relied on to cultivate their crops.

He is revered as a powerful deity who attained the titles of “Lord of the River Bringing Vegetation” and “Lord of the Fish and Birds of the Marshes.”

On the island of Elephantine’s First Cataract, there existed a Hapi cult. Hapi is shown as a man with enormous breasts and a belly, representing fertility and success, and personifying the Nile River during the flood.

20. Sobek “God of the Nile”

Sobek, the Crocodile God, is also the ruler of marshes, wetlands, and sudden demise with ties to both medicine and surgery.

He is a fairly well-known god in Egyptian mythology, especially in the ancient kingdom, and is connected to the Nile, which was thought to be Sobek’s sweat, as well as reproduction, fertility, and medicine.

His cult was rumored to include live crocodiles, and he is dedicated as a man with a crocodile’s head.

He was joined with Ra to form the figure known as Sobek-Ra, and he dwelt on a legendary mountain in the horizon where he exercised total control. He had a strong connection to the Nile since it was thought of as his sweat.

21. Bes “God of Entertainment”

Bes is a well-known dwarf deity who represents comedy, fertility, and birthing. He is the warrior of divine order, balance, and justice as well as the protector and guardian against evil spirits, the protector of women and children, the common man, and the guardian against evil.
He is regarded as more than just a holy spirit because of the numerous common objects that have his likeness, including mirrors, furniture, knife handles, and more.
The hippopotamus goddess of birthing and fertility, Taweret, is his consort. Bes is shown as a bearded dwarf with a lion-like mane, huge ears, and a pug-like snout. His sculptures and amulets were regarded as lucky charms and happy times.

22. Tawaret “Goddess of Childbirth”

Tawaret, the Great Goddess of the Hippopotamus, is a representation of fertility and childbirth. She was recognized throughout ancient Egypt’s history as a child guardian and a crucial support for women during pregnancy and childbirth.

The male hippo is extremely dangerous and violent and is often connected with Set, but the mother hippo is fiercely protective of her young.

She may be found on many home products, including spoons, chairs, pots, and cosmetic boxes.

She is well known for being a devotee of the goddess of beauty, “Hathor,” who is also known as the sky falcon deity of protection and triumph, “Horus.” She is the consort of Bes, the deity of laughter and entertainment.

22. Tawaret “Goddess of Childbirth”

One of the first ancient Egyptian deities to be shown in Lower Egypt is the goddess Neith, who was revered there from the predynastic era (6000–3150 BC) until the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty (323 – 30 BC).

She is portrayed as a war, funeral, mother, warrior, and creation goddess. In addition, she served as the protector of the Nile Delta city of Sais.

She earned the moniker “Mistress of the Bow” because she is devoted and frequently seen with a bow and arrows.

She is renowned as the Grandmother of the Gods due to her connection to the waters of Chaos Nun and her reputation as the creator of birth as well as the process of all living and developing things.

She is portrayed as the defender and aid of the deceased as well as a judge in the Hall of Truth.

23. Neith “Goddess of Arrows”

She was referred to as the scorpion goddess and worshiped from the first dynasty (3150–2890 BC) to the end of ancient Egypt’s history.

A golden statue of her was discovered in Tutankhamen’s tomb. She was an ancient mother goddess who guarded adults and children from the perils of scorpions and other venoms.

Isis is recognized for healing a kid from the poison of a scorpion whose mother insulted her before being pardoned by her, and Serket is said to follow in her footsteps and serve as a symbol of forgiveness and protection.

All of her priests were medical professionals who utilized her name and teachings to help the sick and injured heal. She also assisted in directing the spirits of the deceased toward Paradise and shielding them from harm.

24. Serket “Goddess of Scorpions”

She is a special deity of the vultures and one of Egypt’s earliest deities, dating to the first dynasty (3150 – 2890 BC).

She frequently appears with her wings extended over the ruler since she is the patron of the Pharaoh. She appears as a vulture, which served as Upper Egypt’s protector.

In the city of the dead Nekheb, there stood her shrine. She was referred to as “The Two Ladies” together with her sister Wadjet.

25. Nekhbet “Goddess of Vultures”

One of the most well-known and enduring Egyptian deities of protection dates back to the predynastic era, when she was revered as a goddess of lower Egypt.

She is one of Ra’s daughters, like her sister. She was a crucial part of creation, helping Isis conceal and raise Horus in complete safety far from Set, as well as cultivating the first papyrus in the wetlands of the Nile delta.

She was referred to as West-Hekau, which is Hawaiian for “Great of Magic,” since she provided defense against bad karma, omens, demons, and ghosts. She was portrayed as the King’s Uraeus, a rearing cobra.

Also Read: Ancient Civilizations of Africa and African Empire

Ancient Civilizations of Africa and African Empire

27. Kherty “God of the Underworld”

In the ancient kingdom before Osiris took over as ruler of the underworld, Kherty, a ram-headed deity of the underworld, was a significant god who transported the deceased into the afterlife.

He was the Duat’s deity, represented by a supine, mummified ram. In the Old Kingdom (2613–2181 BCE), Kherty and Osiris were thought to dominate the afterlife.

He assumed charge of the front door, the passageways leading to the hall of truth, and the reed fields where he received the arriving dead. He is portrayed as both the kings’ guardian and an adversary of the order who put the dead kings in danger as they traveled to the underworld.

28. Nefertum “God of Perfume”

The lovely deity of perfume and delicious scents known as Nefertum was created at the beginning of existence from the essence of a blue lotus.

His name translates as “Beautiful One Who Closes” or “One Who Does Not Close,” a lovely Atum who was linked to alluring and fragrant flowers.

The goddesses Sekhmet and Bast were referred to be Nefertem’s mother. Nefertem is the offspring of the creator deity Ptah.

He is a metaphor for the first rays of sunrise and the alluring scent of the Egyptian blue lotus. Due of his association with flowers and gods, he stood for the ideas of metamorphosis and rebirth.

He contributed to the creation of aromas that may treat wounds and illnesses. He is shown as a youthful, attractive man with blue water lilies around his head.

 

29. Renenutet “Goddess of Nursing”

Her name means “Snake Who Nourishes,” since she was the goddess of nursing and nurturing children.

The Renenutet is a highly rare and unusual goddess who was shown as a cobra or a rearing cobra on the head of a queen.

She has the ability to decide how long someone would live and what their entire future would include. She was seen as the mother of Osiris and the consort or wife of Atum.

She is linked to Meskhenet, a goddess of fate and childbirth who was involved in defining everyone’s major life events and the duration of each person’s life.

She is linked to Neith and described to as Osiris’ mother. She was revered as a goddess of fertility who was connected to the Nile, the flood, and the deity Hapi of the fertile mud of the Nile.

She was referred to be the lady of justifications in the afterlife because of her connection to Ma’at.

She was referred to as the lady of the granaries and the lady of the fruitful fields because she used Hapi to guard the grain harvest.

She was referred to as “Lady of the Robes” because she looked after the king’s attire.

She was revered as a goddess of grains who guarded the harvest and was known as “Lady of the Fertile Fields” and “Lady of the Granaries.” She would take the form of a flaming snake, defending the pharaoh from his adversaries.

30. Heka “God of Magic”

One of the most significant gods of ancient Egypt, known as the Heka, is the patron of magic and medicine as well as the original source of knowledge and power in the cosmos.

The Heka, which was formed before the gods and was present at the creation of the world as well as before Atum, was known as “Before Duality Had Yet Come Into Being.”

He is said to be Khnum’s, Menhet’s, and Neith’s son. He is shown as a man holding a staff and a knife, and his doctors are known as Heka’s priests since they are capable of both magic and medicine, which explains why he became a highly popular deity among medical professionals.

Because both action and words held great power in the realm of Egyptian magic, Heka has a strong affinity for the power of speech and words.

It is thought that he slew two serpents and then bound them to his staff as a representation of his might.

The Greeks then used this emblem to inspire the creation of the caduceus, which is depicted on Hermes’ hands. The caduceus and the Asclepius magical rod are sometimes mistaken nowadays.

 

31. Aker “God of the Horizon”

Aker was regarded as an underworld and earthly deity who was in charge of guarding the sun barges of the Sun God Ra as they left and entered the underworld at dawn and twilight.

He was also known as the magically deified horizon god and the guardian of the western and eastern horizons of the afterlife.

Its task was to use his body to build a mythical link between Egypt’s two horizons. He has ties to several gods, including Geb, Ra, and Khepri.

He is shown as a sundeck situated between two back-to-back lions that are joined at the torso and are turned away from one another.

Aker serves as a metaphor for the underworld overall. Duaj calls one of the lions “Yesterday,” while the other Sefer calls it “Tomorrow.”

Also Read: The Ancient Egytian Culture, History & Religion

The Ancient Egytian Culture, History & Religion

32. Anhur “God of Hunting”

It can be traced back to the legend of the Eye of Ra, in which the eye of Horus is transformed into a lion, hunted by Onuris, returned to Ra, where it transforms once more into Mekhit, who then becomes his consort.

The glorious Onuris, also known as “Anhur,” was the god of hunting and war. His name means “He Who Brings Back The Distant One.”

He is shown as Ra’s son and is connected to the deity Shu. He was once thought of as the embodiment of regal warriors and the protector god of hunters and the Egyptian army, constantly guiding them into battle so they may triumph and return home safely.

He is shown as a large, bearded guy with a robe, a lance, or a spear, and he occasionally has a lion-headed deity, who stands for divine might. He also wears a headpiece with four feathers.

33. Aten “God of the Sun-Disk”

Pharaoh Akhenaten (1353–1336 BCE) was on a quest to establish monotheism across Egypt, which had previously been built on the idea of polytheism, and he accomplished this by creating the magical sun disk of Aten.

Akhenaten referred to Aten as the source of life and the nurturing spirit of the earth. Aten is based on one of the attributes of the sun deity Ra.

The great Tutankhamun destroyed the important Aten religion, which was located in Amarna.

34. Bennu “The Phoenix God”

The Greek bird the Phoenix was modeled by the mythical avian deity of the Bennu Bird, a golden god of creation and rebirth.

It first made an appearance at the beginning of creation and soared over the primordial seas, strongly associated with the major gods of ancient Egypt, among them Atum (RA).

The Bennu bird stood for the Ba of RA, which is the idea of creation, the sun, and renewal.

It had a strong connection to Osiris and was also referred to as the “Lord of Jubilees” and “He Who Came Into Being by Himself.” It chose Heliopolis as its headquarters and has strong ties to the age-old genesis story.

35. Geb “God of the Earth”

the God of the ground, growing plants, and crops in ancient Egypt. He was also the father of snakes, and his laughter created earthquakes.

Geb is the child of Shu and Tefnut, who is also the spouse of Nut, the sky goddess. As a member of the Heliopolitan Ennead, Geb is one of the earliest gods in the history of ancient Egypt.

With his consorts Nut, Tefnut, and Renenutet, he is known to have given birth to Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys, Heru-ur, and Nehebkau.

He is connected to the underworld, earth, flora, and healing. He has ties to the mythical heavenly creator geese who deposited the egg on which the universe is said to have been laid.

36. Khepri “God of the Beetle”

The Khepri god is a solar deity who is recognized as a facet of Ra, the sun god, and as a component of Atum, symbolized by the scarab beetle and the rising sun in the morning.

It depicts the idea of rebirth and creation, as would be anticipated from the illustrious scarab beetle that had an influence on ancient Egyptian culture.

As the primary Sun-Deity, guardian, and god of resurrection, Khepri is renowned for his capacity to renew the day with each rising sun. The Khepri is shown as having a man’s body and a scarab beetle head.

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37. Montu “God of War”

In the 11th dynasty in the holy golden lands of Thebes, the falcon battle god mount had its maximum renown (2060-1991 BCE).

Because Montu was thought to be a manifestation of Ra’s fiery influence, he is closely related to the sun deity Ra.

When Horus was associated with Montu, it was viewed as a potent battle deity, symbolizing the unity of the kingdom of Lower and Upper Egypt.

The battle god Montu is shown as a man with a falcon or bull’s head as a representation of power.

His head is also adorned with two feathers and the solar disk, and he is represented with various weapons as a spear, bow, and arrows.

Onuris “Anhur,” the son of Ra and patron of the armed forces and hunters who earned the moniker “He Who Brings Back The Distant One,” is occasionally mistaken with him.

37. Montu “God of War”

The Mediterranean Sea, often known as “The Great Green,” is represented by the Uat-Ur Wadj-wer.

He is thought to be the personification of the delta region’s lakes, lagoons, and marshes that may be found close to the Mediterranean Sea.

He has been revered since the Old Kingdom (2613–2181 BCE), and he has been quite active throughout Egypt’s history.

He was observed at Abusir in the mortuary temple of the Sahure pyramid and at the tomb of prince Amunherkhepeshef, son of pharaoh Ramesses III, and bore a striking likeness to the deity Hapi.

39. Nemty “God of Ferrymen”

Nemty, the deity of the ferrymen, was symbolized by a falcon perched on a boat; his name translates to “one who journeys.”

The principal patron of Badari, which formerly served as the center of Horus’s religion, is well-known to be the deity of ferrymen.

His following is concentrated in Annapolis. He had a part in the Osiris myth, helping to ferry the goddess Isis down the Nile River on a boat.

40. Mut “Goddess of Soul Protection”

As a member of the Theban triad and the mother of Khonsu, who was worshiped in the heavenly Karnak temple complex, the great primeval goddess Mut had a small role throughout the Predynastic Period (6000-3150 BCE).

She emerged from Nu’s primordial waters and was compared to and shown alongside Sekhmet and Bastet.

She had the responsibility of watching over people’s lives and was described in the Book of the Dead as the rescuer of souls who had been imprisoned in the hereafter by demons.

She has witnessed a heavenly guardian that kept the kings and the state safe from any spies and traitors before burning them in a blazing brazier.

Mut was shown as a stunning woman with vulture wings who held an ankh, wore the combined crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, and stood on a feather belonging to Maat.

41. Sekhmet “Goddess of Destruction”

One of the most well-known Egyptian deities, Sekhmet was also the patroness of the desert winds and refreshing breezes.

She was also the goddess of death, retribution, and healing. She was referred to as “The Female Powerful One” and was shown as a fierce lady with a lion’s head.

She was the daughter of Ra, the solar god, who produced Sekhmet as a weapon of human sin and devastation.

As a mistress of life, she possessed the ability to cure and was blamed for any natural disasters or diseases that harmed humanity.

She drank some red-colored beer that Ra was able to use to absorb her need for blood, and after she dozed off, Ra changed her into Hathor.

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42. Neper “God of Grain”

The grain-based deity Neper is recognized as the progeny of Renenutet, a harvest goddess personified as corn who was intimately linked to Osiris during his time as a fertility deity and even named as the one who survived death.

He was revered as the ruler of the mouth and a food supply made of emmer and malted barley.

43. Hu “God of Spoken Word”

The deity of the spoken word “Hu” was viewed as the personification of Ra (Atumfirst )’s word, which he said at the beginning of creation and which made everything actual.

Hu has a strong connection to the ideas of Sia and Heka.

The Hu was viewed as the tongue, the Sia was viewed as the depiction of the heart, and the Heka was viewed as the source of their strength.

The Hu is a symbol for the Heka force of Atum and is also portrayed in several funeral writings as a being that directs souls to the afterlife.

44. Imhotep “God of Reasonable Thinking”

The Step Pyramid’s main architects were Pharaoh Djoser “Imhotepgreatvizier “‘s (2667–2600 BCE), who oversaw its planning and building.

He was a polymath who was knowledgeable in a wide range of subjects, and his name meant “He Who Comes in Peace.”

Aesculapius, who was renowned for his healing spells, and other Greeks made him immensely famous as the god of medicine and knowledge.

The traditional view that sickness was a punishment from the gods and that disease was natural in origin was strongly refuted by all of his medical treatises.

Due to his inherent talent, he was eventually elevated to the status of deity as a representation of intelligence and sane reasoning.

45. Sia “God of Thoughtfulness”

Sia was viewed as the embodiment of awareness and perception and the heart, which served as the center of cognition, feeling, and character.

Hu, Heka, and Sia formed a trio, and Sia gave Hu’s tongue the power to make a day. One of the fundamental energies of the universe, it compelled existence and kept Maat alive.

Hu is a magical representation of the word of Ptah and Atum, which turned thoughts into reality, while Sia is the spiritual embodiment of intelligence.

Sia is shown as a guy holding a papyrus scroll who stands at Ptah’s right. As a crew man of the ship outside Ra’s sun barge, he may be seen in the Valley of the Kings.

46. Menhit “Goddess of Warfare”

Menhit was a solar goddess of battle who was pictured giving the forehead of Ra, an Egyptian god of the moon who originated in Nubia and was shown as a roaring lioness.

She represented the wrath aspect of the Eye of Ra. She shared adoration with Wadjet and Neith as a guardian goddess in the Abydos heavenly realms, where she had a primary cult.

She was said to be the physical representation of Ra’s eyes, which Onuris had pursued and brought back.

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47. Mafdet “Goddess of Judgment”

The powerful deity Mafet was revered as a representation of justice who rendered rapid judgment. Because of how quickly she delivered justice, she earned the nickname “She Who Runs.”

From the Early Dynastic Period (3150–2613 BCE) all the way to the New Kingdom (1570–1069 BCE), she was extremely well-liked and even before Sekhmet and Bastet.

She appeared as a judge in the afterlife. She served as the primary defense against the scorpions’ poisonous bites.

She was shown as a lady with the head of a cat, the body of a lynx, leopard, or cheetah, and the sword of an executioner.

48. Anuket “Goddess of Fertility”

Virgo, the fertility goddess Anuket, who was worshipped on Elephantine Island and was in charge of Egypt’s southern boundary territories, is to blame for the cascade of the Nile River at Aswan.

She went by the names Clasper or Embracer. She was the Ra’s daughter and had strong ties to Sekhmet, Bastet, and Hathor.

She was shown as a female wearing a lovely headpiece decorated with ostrich feathers, cowry, and bow and arrows. She is represented with a scepter with an ankh on top, and the gazelle is her emblematic animal.

49. Seshat “Goddess of Writing”

The goddess Seshat was associated with writing, notations, knowledge, wisdom, books, and measuring.

She was the daughter and consort of Thoth, the god of writing and learning, and her name means “The Female Scribe.” Similar to her father, she was the patroness of both public and private libraries, scribes, builders, architects, and those who worked with measures, livestock accounting, and war booty.

The goddess of construction, surveying, accounting, astrology, mathematics, and architecture. Her name, which was first stated in the Second Dynasty, means “She Who is First in the House of Books” (2890-2670 BCE).

She is shown as a powerful, attractive woman wielding a staff with a star on top, dressed in leopard leather over a robe and wearing a headband.

50. Meskhenet “Goddess of Childbirth”

The birthing goddess One of the earliest Egyptian goddesses, Meskhenet is said to have been there at the moment of birth and produced the Ka, a symbol of the soul that she subsequently breathed into the newborn’s body.

She predicted the individual’s fate based on their personality. She acted as a soother who was there when judgment was handed out in the afterlife.

Every person’s whole existence, from conception to death and after, was spent with her. She saw a birthing block with a woman’s head on it in her mind. She was highly revered and adored in ancient Egyptian houses over the course of their existence.

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